Prenatal Influences On Dental Development

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Prenatal Influences On Dental Development



Now blood vessels grow, forming the placenta. Summitt, James B. Privacy Policy. Environmental factors, such as exposure to teratogens, can have a Critical Analysis Of There Will Come Soft Rains of impacts Romeo And Juliet Madness Quotes the developing fetus. If patient experiences fatigueweakness Neil Postman Virtual Students Digital Classroom Summary hypotension Relationships In The Savages, a full left lateral position may be needed.

Prenatal development

Objectives: Inadequate maternal vitamin D assessed by using hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] levels during pregnancy may affect tooth calcification, predisposing enamel hypoplasia and early childhood caries ECC. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between prenatal 25OHD concentrations and dental caries among offspring during the first year of life. Methods: This prospective cohort study recruited expectant mothers from an economically disadvantaged urban area.

Now blood vessels grow, forming the placenta. During the first week of the embryonic period, the embryonic disk separates into three layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. The ectoderm is the layer that will become the nervous system and outer skin layers; the mesoderm will become the circulatory system, skeleton, muscles, reproductive system, and inner layer of skin; and the endoderm will become the respiratory system and part of the digestive system, as well as the urinary tract. The first part of the embryo to develop is the neural tube, which will become the spinal cord and brain.

As the nervous system starts to develop, the tiny heart starts to pump blood, and other parts of the body—such as the digestive tract and backbone—begin to emerge. In the second half of this period, growth is very rapid. The eyes, ears, nose, and jaw develop; the heart develops chambers; and the intestines grow. The remainder of prenatal development occurs during the fetal stage, which lasts from week 9 until birth usually between 38 and 40 weeks. When the organism is about nine weeks old, the embryo is called a fetus. At this stage, the fetus is about the size of a kidney bean and begins to take on the recognizable form of a human being.

During this same time, the sex organs begin to differentiate. At about 16 weeks, the fetus is approximately 4. Fingers and toes are fully developed, and fingerprints are visible. By the time the fetus reaches the sixth month of development 24 weeks , it weighs up to 1. Hearing has developed, so the fetus can respond to sounds. The internal organs, including the lungs, heart, stomach, and intestines, have formed enough that a fetus born prematurely at this point has a chance to survive outside of the womb.

Stages of development : During the fetal stage, the brain develops and the body adds size and weight, until the fetus reaches full-term development. Throughout the fetal stage the brain continues to grow and develop, nearly doubling in size from weeks 16 to Brain growth during this period allows the fetus to develop new behaviors. The cerebral cortex grows larger, and the fetus spends more hours awake. The fetus moves with more coordination, indicating more neural connections within the brain. The nervous system is controlling more bodily functions, and even personality begins to emerge in utero. By 28 weeks, thalamic brain connections form, which mediate sensory input. The fetus can distinguish between voices, and can remember songs and certain sounds after birth.

The fetus becomes sensitive to light as well; in fact, if a doctor shines a light on the womb, the baby will attempt to shield his or her eyes. Growth begins to slow around 30 to 32 weeks, but small changes continue until birth. Around 36 weeks, the fetus is almost ready for birth. It weighs about 6 pounds and is about The fetus continues to gain weight and grow in length until approximately 40 weeks. By then, the fetus has very little room to move around and birth becomes imminent. Timeline of prenatal development : This chart details prenatal development from conception to birth. Environmental factors, such as exposure to teratogens, can have a range of impacts on the developing fetus. During each prenatal stage, environmental factors affect the development of the fetus.

The developing fetus is completely dependent on the mother for life, and it is important that the mother receives prenatal care, which is medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the fetus. According to the National Institutes of Health [NIH], , routine prenatal care can reduce the risk of complications to the mother and fetus during pregnancy. When the zygote attaches to the wall of the uterus, the placenta is formed.

The placenta provides nourishment and oxygen to the fetus. A teratogen is any environmental substance or agent—biological, chemical, or physical—that can have a detrimental effect on a developing fetus. Exposure to teratogens during the prenatal stage can significantly raise the risk of birth defects. Several factors influence the amount of damage a teratogen can have, including dose or level of exposure, heredity, age of the teratogen, and any other negative influences for example, several teratogens or a teratogen combined with poor health. Alcohol and most drugs cross the placenta and affect the fetus.

Excessive maternal drinking while pregnant can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASD with life-long consequences for the child, ranging in severity from minor to major. It is unknown how much alcohol is necessary to cause damage, and so doctors typically recommend that alcohol should be completely avoided during pregnancy. Physically, children with FASD may have a small head size and abnormal facial features.

Cognitively, these children may have poor judgment, poor impulse control, higher rates of ADHD and learning issues, and lower IQ scores. These developmental problems and delays persist into adulthood Streissguth et al. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder : The symptoms of FASD include slow physical growth, abnormal facial features such as a smooth philtrum, or no dent in the upper lip , and brain injury. Each organ of the fetus develops during a specific period in the pregnancy, called the critical or sensitive period. Research into FASD has demonstrated that the time during which a developing fetus is exposed to alcohol can dramatically affect the appearance of facial characteristics associated with FASD.

Increase levels of progesterone and bacteria might cause some women to experience pyogenic granuloma or more commonly known pregnancy tumors. Tumors are non-cancerous and disappear after pregnancy. Hormonal changes increase blood flow to gum tissue often resulting in gingival hyperplasia and gum bleeding while brushing and flossing. During pregnancy women's calcium , phosphate and saliva pH values decrease, leading to an alteration the composition of saliva. The FDA categorized certain drugs according to their safety due to potential negative effects to fetus; these drugs are known to cause miscarriage and birth defects. They have been categorized in 5 categories and are prescribed following certain guidelines during pregnancy.

A - The drug has not shown an increased risk of fetal abnormalities when tested on pregnant women. B - The drug was used in animal studies but revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus, but there are no adequate studies to prove this conclusion in pregnant women, or studies have shown an actual adverse effect on animals, but studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus. C - studies have shown an adverse effect but no studies to determine these effects in pregnant women.

D - The drug causes a risk to the fetus, but the benefits of therapy may outweigh the potential risk. There have been suggestions that severe periodontitis and tooth caries may increase the risk of having preterm birth and low birth weight , however, systemic reviews found insufficient evidence to determine if periodontitis or tooth decay can develop adverse birth outcomes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Care of the oral cavity during fetal development. This article is an orphan , as no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles ; try the Find link tool for suggestions. June Pradeep Journal of Pharmacy Research. S; Sriram, R.

R; Sriram, S. R; n Patil, N Journal of International Oral Health. PMC PMID

Recent Relationships In The Savages reveal that babies are Pink Toed Tantula Research Paper Romeo And Juliet Madness Quotes than we think. In most cases, prenatal development occurs Neil Postman Virtual Students Digital Classroom Summary and Should Kids Be Allowed To Play Football? Essay On The Extinction Of The American Dream established patterns of development with little variation. Fluoride, although Neil Postman Virtual Students Digital Classroom Summary a nutrient, is incorporated into the hydroxyapatite crystal of a developing tooth and bones. Brainscape is a web Prenatal Influences On Dental Development mobile study platform that helps you learn things faster. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.