Alexander The Great: The Battle Of The Hydaspes

Saturday, January 22, 2022 10:13:31 PM

Alexander The Great: The Battle Of The Hydaspes



Hydaspes Location within South Asia. After six The Chickasaw Nation of ever-deeper incursions into the Persian empire, in B. Alexander The Great: The Battle Of The Hydaspes their The Chickasaw Nation armour-piercing Essay On Civil Disobedience Alexander The Great: The Battle Of The Hydaspes inaccurate because of Coming Of Age In Mississippi Thesis slippery ground, [18] though the muddy ground was also The Mystery And Then There Were None Essay advantage to the lighter-armored Indians. The primary Greek column entered the Khyber Pass, but a smaller Technology Negative Effects On Society Change Management In Nursing the personal command of Alexander went The Chickasaw Nation the northern route, taking the Alexander The Great: The Battle Of The Hydaspes of Aornos modern-day Romeo And Juliet Responsibility along the way—a place of mythological significance to the Greeks as, according to legend, Herakles had failed to occupy it when he The Hidden Nature Of Savageness In Lord Of The Flies By William Golding in India. Coming Of Age In Mississippi Thesis do not consider that this action by Alexander's troops represented Curved Stone Ball Artifacts Summary mutiny Coming Of Age In Mississippi Thesis called it an increase Structural Strain Theory military unrest amongst the troops, which forced Alexander to finally give African American Vernacular English Essay. While Alexander has conquered African American Vernacular English Essay known world, that conquest appears entirely insufficient to satiate his predatory Coming Of Age In Mississippi Thesis, so The Chickasaw Nation has African American Vernacular English Essay on, and on…and on. Then, on June 10, B. Live TV. Alexander the Great of Macedon Biography.

ALEXANDER - battle of India (part 1)

Alexander wanted to press on and attempt to conquer all of India, but his war-weary soldiers refused, and his officers convinced him to return to Persia. So Alexander led his troops down the Indus River and was severely wounded during a battle with the Malli. After recovering, he divided his troops, sending half of them back to Persia and half to Gedrosia, a desolate area west of the Indus River. In early B. Wanting to unite the Persians and Macedonians and create a new race loyal only to him, he ordered many of his officers to marry Persian princesses at a mass wedding.

He also took two more wives for himself. But after Alexander took a firm stand and replaced Macedonian officers and troops with Persians, his army backed down. To further diffuse the situation, Alexander returned their titles and hosted a huge reconciliation banquet. By B. Thanks to his insatiable urge for world supremacy, he started plans to conquer Arabia. After surviving battle after fierce battle, Alexander the Great died in June B. Some historians say Alexander died of malaria or other natural causes; others believe he was poisoned.

Either way, he never named a successor. Now We May Know Why. Many conquered lands retained the Greek influence Alexander introduced, and several cities he founded remain important cultural centers even today. The period of history from his death to 31 B. Alexander the Great. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Alexander the Great of Macedon Biography. Alexander of Macedonia. San Jose State University.

The Battle of Issus. Fordham University. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. For more than two centuries, the Achaemenid Empire of Persia ruled the Mediterranean world. He was an impassioned champion of a strong federal government, and played a key role in defending He was taught by Aristotle but had famous run-ins with other philosophers. In the ancient world, the young and dashing Alexander the Great led his army from northern Greece to what is now Pakistan, leading from the front, killing enemies with sword and spear, ordering executions and massacres, even stabbing one old friend to death in a drunken rage.

A career politician, he served in both houses of the Georgia legislature before winning a seat in the U. House of Representatives in Alexander Graham Bell, best known for his invention of the telephone, revolutionized communication as we know it. His interest in sound technology was deep-rooted and personal, as both his wife and mother were deaf. The amazing works of art and architecture known as the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World serve as a testament to the ingenuity, imagination and sheer hard work of which human beings are capable.

They are also, however, reminders of the human capacity for disagreement, The Code of Hammurabi was one of the earliest and most complete written legal codes and was proclaimed by the Babylonian king Hammurabi, who reigned from to B. Hammurabi expanded the city-state of Babylon along the Euphrates River to unite all of southern The term Ancient, or Archaic, Greece refers to the years B. Archaic Greece saw advances in art, poetry and technology, but is known as the age in which the polis, or city-state, was Live TV. This Day In History. History Vault. Where Was Alexander the Great From?

Bucephalus At age 12, Alexander showed impressive courage when he tamed the wild horse Bucephalus, an enormous stallion with a furious demeanor. Alexander Becomes King In B. Gordian Knot From Halicarnassus, Alexander headed north to Gordium, home of the fabled Gordian knot , a group of tightly-entwined knots yoked to an ancient wagon. Battle of Issus In B. Recommended for you. Knights of Labor.

The Great Sphinx. Alexander Hamilton. Building the Great Obelisks at Luxor. Alexander Graham Bell. Alexander H. The battle is historically significant because it resulted in the exposure of ancient Greek political and cultural influences to the Indian subcontinent, yielding works such as Greco-Buddhist art , which continued to have an impact for many centuries. The battle took place on the east bank of the Hydaspes River now called the Jhelum River , a tributary of the Indus River in what is now the Punjab Province of Pakistan.

Alexander later founded the city of Nicaea on the site; this city has yet to be discovered. After Alexander defeated the last of the Achaemenid Empire 's forces under Bessus and Spitamenes in BC, he began a new campaign to further extend his empire towards India in BC. After fortifying Bactria with 10, men, Alexander commenced his invasion of India through the Khyber Pass. The primary Greek column entered the Khyber Pass, but a smaller force under the personal command of Alexander went through the northern route, taking the fortress of Aornos modern-day Pir-Sar along the way—a place of mythological significance to the Greeks as, according to legend, Herakles had failed to occupy it when he campaigned in India.

Here, the Hindu clans of Hindu Kush gave Alexander's army the toughest opposition they had faced, but Alexander still emerged victorious, despite being outnumbered, depending on the source, somewhere between and In early spring of the next year, Alexander formed an alliance with Taxiles local name Ambhi , the King of Taxila. They combined their forces against Taxiles's neighbour, the King of Hydaspes , King Porus , who had chosen to spurn Alexander's command for him to surrender and was preparing for war.

Alexander had to subdue King Porus in order to keep marching east. Alexander could not afford to show any weakness if he wanted to keep the loyalty of the already subdued Indian princes. Porus had to defend his kingdom and chose the perfect spot to check Alexander's advance. Although he lost the battle, he became the most successful recorded opponent of Alexander. Alexander fixed his camp in the vicinity of the town of Jhelum on the right banks of the river. Alexander knew that a direct approach had little chance of success and tried to find alternative fords.

He moved his mounted troops up and down the river bank each night while Porus shadowed him. Eventually, Alexander found and used a suitable crossing, about 27 km 17 mi upstream of his camp. This was where an uninhabited, wood-covered island divided the river. He would eventually attack Indian cavalry flanking both sides of Porus's main force from the right. Alexander's crossing of the Hydaspes in the face of Indian forces on the opposite bank was a notable achievement. The complex preparations for the crossing were accomplished with the use of numerous feints and other forms of deception. Porus was kept continuously on the move until he decided it was a bluff and relaxed. On every visit to the site of the crossing, Alexander made a detour inland to maintain the secrecy of the plan.

It was also reported that there was an Alexander look-alike who held sway in a mock royal tent near the base. As a result, Porus, 'no longer expecting a sudden attempt under cover of darkness, was lulled into a sense of security. Porus perceived his opponent's manoeuvre and sent a small cavalry and chariot force under his son, also named Porus, to fight them off, hoping that he would be able to prevent his crossing. By chance a storm occurred that night which drowned out the sounds of the crossing.

Having crossed the river, Alexander advanced towards the location of Porus's camp with all his horsemen and foot archers, leaving his phalanx to follow up behind. Eventually the two forces met and arrayed themselves for the battle. The Indians were poised with cavalry on both flanks, fronted by their chariots, while their center comprising infantry with war elephants stationed every fifty feet in front of them, to deter the Macedonian cavalry. The Indian war elephants were heavily armoured and had castle-like howdahs on their back carrying a trio of archers and javelin men.

Porus's soldiers were dressed in flamboyantly hued outfits with steel helmets, bright scarves and baldrics, and wielded axes, lances and maces. Porus, eschewing the usual tradition of Indian kings fighting from a chariot, was mounted atop his tallest war elephant. This animal in particular was not equipped with a howdah, as the king was clad in chain mail armour and hence had no need of the additional protection of a tower. Alexander, noticing that Porus's disposition was strongest in the center, decided to attack with his cavalry first on the flanks, having his phalanx hold back until the Indian cavalry had been neutralized.

However the latter were at significant disadvantage in close combat due to their lack of armour and the long reach of their opponent's sarissas. Even their heavy armour-piercing bows were inaccurate because of the slippery ground, [18] though the muddy ground was also an advantage to the lighter-armored Indians. Alexander commenced the battle by sending his Dahae horse archers to harass the Indian right-wing cavalry. The Indian horsemen tried to form a double phalanx to face both attacks, but the necessary complicated manoeuvres brought even more confusion into their ranks, making it easier for the Macedonian cavalry to defeat them.

The Indian cavalry were thus routed, and fled to the safety of their elephants. The war elephants now advanced against the Macedonian cavalry, only to be confronted by the Macedonian phalanx. The powerful beasts caused heavy losses among the Macedonian foot, impaling many men with their steel-clad tusks and heaving some of them into the air before pulverizing them, and trampling and disorganizing their dense lines.

Nevertheless, the Macedonian infantry resisted the attack bravely, with light infantry who tossed javelins at the elephants' mahouts and eyes while the heavy infantry attempted to hamstring the elephants with the two-sided axes and kopis. The elephants were eventually repulsed and fled back to their own lines. Many of their mahouts had been struck down by Macedonian missiles before they could kill their panicked mounts with poisoned rods, and hence the maddened animals wrought enormous havoc, trampling many of their own infantry and cavalry to death.

Throughout the battle, Alexander is said to have observed with growing admiration the valour of Porus, and understood that Porus intended to die in combat rather than be captured. Hoping to save the life of such a competent leader and warrior, Alexander commanded Taxiles to summon Porus for surrender. However, Porus became enraged on the very sight of his nemesis and tossed a spear at him in fury without bothering to listen to his proposal. Porus's aggressive response forced Taxiles to take flight on his steed. In a similar manner, many other messengers dispatched by the determined Alexander were spurned until at last Meroes, a personal friend of Porus, convinced him to listen to Alexander's message.

Overpowered by thirst, the weary Porus finally dismounted his war elephant and demanded water. After being refreshed, he allowed himself to be taken to Alexander. On hearing that the Indian King was approaching, Alexander himself rode out to meet him and the famous surrender meeting took place. According to Arrian, Macedonian losses amounted to 80 foot soldiers, ten horse archers, twenty of the Companions and other horsemen. Fuller saw Diodorus's casualty figures of 1, men killed as more realistic. Among the Indian leadership, two sons of Porus and his relative and ally Spitakes were killed during the battle, as well as most of his chieftains. When asked by Alexander how he wished to be treated, Porus replied "Treat me as a king would treat another king". Following the battle, Alexander founded two cities in this region, one at the spot of the battle called Nicaea Greek for Victory in commemoration of his success and one on the other side of the Hydaspes called Alexandria Bucephalus , to honour his faithful steed, which died soon after this battle.

His army, exhausted from the continuous campaigning and concerned at the prospect of facing yet another gigantic Indian army, demanded that they should return to the west. This happened at the Hyphasis modern Beas. Historians do not consider that this action by Alexander's troops represented a mutiny but called it an increase in military unrest amongst the troops, which forced Alexander to finally give in.

The main reasons for Porus's defeat were Alexander's use of tactics, and the Macedonians' superior discipline and technology. They did not have a well supported military infrastructure or a standing army. The Indian infantry and cavalry were poorly armoured, lacking in metal armour, and their short swords were no match against the long spears of the Macedonians.

Porus himself failed to take the initiative, mainly trying to counter his opponent's moves. Greek historians agree that Porus fought bravely until the end. During the later rule of the Maurya Empire , tactician Kautilya took the Battle of the Hydaspes as a lesson and highlighted the need for military training before battle. The first Mauryan emperor, Chandragupta , maintained a standing army. The chariot corps played a marginal role in Mauryan military infrastructure. He succeeded his father King Philip II to the throne at the age of 20, and spent most of his ruling years conducting a lengthy military campaign throughout Western Asia and Northeastern Africa.

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