The 1956 Uprising

Monday, March 14, 2022 1:15:47 AM

The 1956 Uprising

Gender Separation In Susan Glaspells A Jury Of Her Peers have documented Silent Film Analysis of nationalists whose member Rhinotomy In Y Ha joined the conflict upon commands The 1956 Uprising by the colonial police and French settlers The 1956 Uprising in Madagascar. New York: Fawcett. The Oxford English Dictionary distinguishes between revolution deposing a government and a revoltwhich might or might not succeed. Louis, Conformity: What Does It Means To Be Myself, to a long-established family. Storyline Edit.

The Hungarian Resistance (1956)

The colonial authorities sought to fight on the physical and psychological fronts and engaged in a variety of terror tactics designed to demoralize the population. The French military force carried out mass execution , torture , war rape , torching of entire villages, collective punishment and other atrocities such as throwing live Malagasy prisoners out of an airplane death flights. The estimated number of Malagasy casualties varies from a low of 11, to a high of over , By August , the majority of the nationalist leaders were killed or captured, and the Uprising was effectively put down by December , though the last armed resistance was only defeated in February The violent repression of the nationalist insurgency left deep scars in Malagasy society.

A generation of the managerial class was wiped out, creating challenges for the country when it achieved independence in Madagascar's first three deputies were arrested, tortured and kept in prison until they were given amnesty in France classified most documents related to the Uprising, and the French government maintained silence on the subject until French president Jacques Chirac termed it "unacceptable" during an official visit to Madagascar in Several Malagasy directors have set films in the period of the Uprising. In the Malagasy government declared 29 March an annual holiday, and in a museum dedicated to the Uprising was inaugurated in Moramanga. By the close of the 19th century, Madagascar was largely under the control of the Kingdom of Imerina , with its royal palaces at its capital in Antananarivo.

Although the kingdom had existed since the early 16th century, it expanded its control beyond its traditional borders in the s under King Radama I , who the British government officially recognized as the sovereign over the entire island of Madagascar. After several failed attempts to impose its authority over the island, France used military force to capture the royal palace in September and exiled Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony upon officially colonizing the island in February Queen Ranavalona III was allowed to remain as a figurehead until the emergence of a popular uprising, termed the Menalamba rebellion , for which the queen was held responsible.

The rebellion was harshly crushed and the queen was exiled in The Menalamba rebellion was only the first manifestation of ongoing opposition to French rule that occasionally erupted in violent clashes between the Malagasy and the colonial authorities in Madagascar. Secret nationalist societies began to form in the s. Conscription of Malagasy soldiers to fight for France in World War I strengthened resentment of foreign rule, and in the interwar period these nationalist organizations proliferated.

Germany's defeat of the French army and occupation of France in , the imposition of a Vichy regime on Madagascar and the subsequent capture of the island by the British in further tarnished the colonial government's image. Popular anger was especially aroused by its policies of forced labor in lieu of taxes , involuntary conscription into the army to fight in World War II , and the required contribution of large quantities of rice per head annually. Malagasy hopes for greater sovereignty were stirred by remarks given by General Charles de Gaulle at the Brazzaville Conference in , where de Gaulle announced all colonies were thereafter French overseas territories entitled to representation in the French National Assembly , [8] and promised citizenship rights to residents of its overseas colonies.

Despite the partial implementation of these reforms, forced labor on French-owned plantations and other rights abuses in Madagascar continued unabated. Both organizations, which sought to achieve independence by force if necessary, [9] saw their membership swell during this period. Following the end of the Second World War, several key Malagasy nationalist leaders attempted to achieve independence for Madagascar through legal means. All three leaders were the descendants of Hova who had been politically prominent in the former Merina royal court. The movement was pacifist, and while it sought independence for Madagascar, it embraced the French vision of the island as part of the global Francophone economic and cultural community.

The Malagasy deputies submitted a bill to grant independence for Madagascar from French rule, but French deputies rejected it. The MDRM quest for independence was therefore received as a blow to French prestige and authority, [9] and it raised the specter of the violent conflict launched by Vietnamese nationalists in French Indochina the month before. Moutet responded stridently, declaring a "war against the Malagasy autonomy movement". The refusal of the French government to support a democratic process toward independence for Madagascar drew criticism from the United States government, which strongly denounced the French reaction and criticized its leadership.

The timing had additional significance as the historic date of the traditional Merina Kingdom fandroana new year's festival, historically celebrated by a ritual period of anarchy followed by the Merina sovereign's reestablishment of order. Malagasy nationalists, chief among them the members of the nationalist secret societies Vy Vato Sakelika VVS and Jiny, [9] coordinated surprise attacks in the eastern part of the island at the Tristani police camp near the rail line at Moramanga , in the coastal town of Manakara and at several points along the lower Faraony River [9] [1] where key French plantations were located.

Most historians share the view that the militants escalated the conflict toward violence on the basis of false information transmitted by duplicitous individuals or groups attempting to neutralize the nationalist influence. Members of VVS and Jiny involved in the initial attacks have stated that their organizations were obliged to attack after the signal to take action was transmitted to them by a group that was later discovered to have secret ties to the national police. Researchers have documented reports of nationalists whose member organizations joined the conflict upon commands issued by the colonial police and French settlers living in Madagascar.

The French generally suspected that the rebellion was secretly supported by foreign powers, most significantly by the United Kingdom. Two British nationals, namely ex-Major John Morris, and Major Nicholson who worked at the British consulate in Antananarivo, were accused of stirring up Malagasy nationalist activities. Morris was eventually expelled from the island as result. They probably never possessed more than rifles and three machine guns. Most rebels had to resort to spears, [16] and had little protection from the firearms of the French military. The attacks in the east were immediately followed by similar actions in the south of the island before rapidly spreading throughout the country.

By early April, when violence first erupted in Antananarivo, the number of nationalist fighters was estimated at around 2, Attacks against French military bases multiplied over the course of the month throughout the central highlands as far south as Fianarantsoa and as far north as Lake Alaotra. The movement enjoyed particularly strong support in the south, where the revolt attracted as many as one million peasants to fight for the nationalist cause.

Two guerrilla zones were established in the eastern rainforest and the fighters extended their control from these points. The nationalists grouped together under various established or new configurations, including several militias with their own leadership structure, including generals and war ministers. Militias were sometimes led by traditional leaders mpanjaka of local communities. Numerous others were railway workers who hid themselves in the dense eastern rainforest and made use of guerrilla tactics to attack French interests along the rail line connecting Antananarivo to the eastern port town of Toamasina.

The rebel provisional government followed a policy of total war , and instructed all civilians under its control to assist the war effort by producing weapons, uniforms, and food for the rebels, to build air shelters to protect insurgents from air strikes and air reconnaissance, and to gather intelligence for the rebellion. The eruption of the conflict provided the pretext for violence between highland Merina and coastal Malagasy of other ethnic groups that were linked to precolonial history and politics. Merina Hova elites founded the MDRM not only in the interest of ending French rule, but also in regaining the political dominance of the Merina upon independence. It attracted membership from members of coastal communities formerly subjugated by the Merina empire, as well as highland-based descendants of former Merina slaves.

Initially a non-nationalist party, PADESM eventually favored a gradual process toward independence that would preserve close ties to France and prevent the reemergence of the precolonial Merina hegemony. By aligning itself with PADESM, Socialist-dominated French politicians sought to cast themselves as champions of the oppressed masses against the exploitative Hova elites.

French security forces were initially taken by surprise and were unable to organize an effective response to contain the uprising. However, French army strength remained modest with soldiers numbering 18, in April The number of troops increased to about 30, in The French strategy followed the " oil spot " method of General Joseph Gallieni , the first governor of the island — to root out, demoralize and crush the guerrilla fighters. Many of these practices were later employed by the French military during the Algerian War.

In Mananjary , hundreds of Malagasy were killed, among them 18 women and a group of prisoners thrown alive out of an airplane. Other massacres of 35 to 50 people occurred in Farafangana , Manakara, and Mahanoro. The rebels had expected that the United States might intervene in their favor, but no such action was taken by Washington. Razafindrabe was forced to give up his headquarters at Beparasy in August , while Radaoroson was usurped as leader of the southern insurgents by another rebel leader, Lehoaha, whose forces were better armed than those of Radaoroson.

The rebels further fragmented in the next months. With the end of the wet season , however, the French launched a large-scale offensive and overran the rebel territories. The French government's first official estimate of the number of Malagasy killed in the conflict was 89, In the High Commissioner of Madagascar added to this figure the estimated number who fled into the forest and were believed dead, declaring the true number of dead at over , Many Malagasy believe this to be an underestimate of the actual number killed.

In , the colonial administration revised the casualty number to 11, "known dead". Historians continue to disagree over the number of casualties during the Malagasy Uprising. The original figure of 89, casualties is often quoted. Studies in Historical Transformations. Archived from the original PDF on 3 July Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 22 October Retrieved 11 April The Spectator Archive. Retrieved 7 October No More Comrades. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. Archived from the original on 8 November Retrieved 11 October A Meetings and demonstrations , para 54 p.

C The First Shots , para 55 p. Archived from the original on 30 June C The First Shots , para 56 p. C The First Shots , paragraphs 56—57 p. Gati stated that "discovered in declassified documents, the Soviet Ministry of Defense had begun to prepare for large-scale turmoil in Hungary as early as July Codenamed 'Wave', the plan called for restoration of order in less than six hours. More than 30, troops were dispatched to—and 6, reached—Budapest by the 24th, that is, in less than a day". C, para 58 p. C, para p. C, para 57 p.

N, para 89 ix p. B Resistance of the Hungarian people para. H Further developments para. I, para p. F, para 64 p. F, para 65 p. B, para p. Retrieved 28 October F Political Developments II. Nagy clarifies his position , paragraphs 67—70 p. Revolt in Hungary. HU OSA —0— Archived from the original on 17 November F Political developments , paragraph 66 p. Revolution in Hungary.

Books for Libraries Press. D Reassertion of Political Rights , paragraph p. New York: Doubleday. Retrieved 8 February Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved on E Revolutionary and Workers' Councils , paragraph 63 p. Cold War International History Project. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 20 October Retrieved 19 October The Hungarian Quarterly. Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 27 April Lesson 3: The Days of Freedom. The History of the Hungarian revolution of Retrieved 6 October Cites Burlatsky, Khrushchev and the first Russian Spring [], pp.

Paper presented at Rutgers University. The Institute for the History of the Hungarian Revolution. Retrieved 6 December Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt. Archived from the original on 12 November Retrieved 12 March Grechko and Tarasov in Berlin to N. Modern Politics. PM Press. Retrieved 18 September Retrieved 8 July Mao: A Life , p.

Opoka in Polish. Retrieved 3 September Retrieved 9 December British Foreign Office Documents ". Hungarian Quarterly. Retrieved 7 December Morris, Eds. Retrieved 8 November In action during the Revolution". National Security Archive. D, para p. I, para 75 p. I, para 76 p. E Logistical deployment of new Soviet troops , para p. The Hungarian Revolution Elite. Osprey Publishing. Hungarian Tragedy.

London: D. Chapter 9 The Second Soviet Intervention. Archived from the original on 1 December C, para pp. Retrieved 22 April D a silent carrier wave was detected until am , para p. Democracy, Revolution, Self-Determination. New York: Columbia University Press. November 4. Retrieved 30 October According to this agreement, he then departed. E, para p. Soviet Foreign Propaganda. Princeton University Press. Imre Nagy cannot and does not want to fight the dark forces of reaction The Soviet Government, seeing that the presence of Soviet troops in Budapest might lead to further aggravation of the situation, ordered troops to leave Budapest, but ensuing events have shown that reactionary forces, taking advantage of the non-intervention of the Nagy Cabinet, have gone still further The task of barring the way to reaction in Hungary has to be carried out without the slightest delay—such is the course dictated by events This is why they labeled many ordinary citizens' actions as crimes.

Critical opposition attitudes were described as "a plot to overthrow the people's democratic regime", and workers and peasants who took part in the revolt were called "jailbirds, ragamuffins, and kulaks. The White Books published in the individual counties of Hungary in — summarized local "counter-revolutionary" events. The handing down of experiences in families of the politically condemned in Communist Hungary. International Oral History Conference.

Archived from the original on 7 June Retrieved 10 October Society of the Hungarian Quarterly. XL : 86— Archived from the original on 27 November The Hungarian revolution: a history in documents. Central European University Press. Retrieved 31 October I call upon the Hungarian people to regard neither the occupation force nor the puppet government it may install as a legal authority but rather to employ every means of passive resistance against it Rainer Hungarian Tragedy , p. Central European University Press: Budapest. A, para p. Index Books: London.

Retrieved 13 October Time Magazine. Gati states: "Washington implicitly acknowledging the division of the continent into two camps, understood that Moscow would not let go of a country bordering on neutral but pro-Western Austria and an independent Yugoslavia, so it shed Archived from the original on 30 September Simpson's Contemporary Quotations.

United Nations. D Organization and Function of the Committee , paragraphs 1—26 pp. E Attempts to observe in Hungary and meet Imre Nagy , paragraphs 32—34 p. N Summary of conclusions , paragraph 89 pp. Biographical dictionary of European labor leaders. Volume 1. Greenwood Publishing Group, Retrieved on 28 October Danilov "The Provocation Continues". International Affairs, No. Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 21 September American Antiquarian Society. How much is that in real money? Retrieved 1 January Dal Pci al socialismo europeo. A political autobiography in Italian. Retrieved 24 October The Cultural Landscape Foundation. Retrieved 2 March Fact Sheets on Hungary.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 24 February American Hungarian Federation. International Information Programs. Archived from the original on 15 February Gadney, Reg Cry Hungary: Uprising Macmillan Pub Co. Gati, Charles Granville, Johanna Kertesz, Stephen D. Lendvai, Paul Princeton UP. Matthews, John P. The Bridge at Andau reissue ed.

New York: Fawcett. Morris, William E. Lettis, Richard ed. Simon Publications. Schmidl, Erwin A. New York: Pantheon. Sugar, Peter F. Hanak, Peter; Frank, Tibor eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Watry, David M. Historiography and memory [ edit ] Cash, John Joseph. Cox, Terry. Hungary — forty Years on London: F. Mark, James. Online Primary sources [ edit ] Beke, Laszlo. Haraszti-Taylor, Eva, ed. Korda, Michael. Harper Perennial The Hungarian revolution; a white book: The story of the October uprising as recorded in documents, dispatches, eye-witness accounts, and world-wide reactions Books for Libraries Press, Lomax, William, ed.

Hungarian workers' councils in East European Monographs, Nagy, Imre. On communism: In defense of the new course Praeger, Napolitano, Giorgio Hungarian Revolution of Armed conflicts involving Hungary. Iraq War Hungarian—Romanian War Armed conflicts involving Russia incl. Imperial and Soviet times. Armed conflicts involving the Soviet Union. Cold War. Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race. Gar Alperovitz Thomas A. Cull Willem Drees Robert D. Matlock Jr. Thomas J. Painter William B. Pickett Ronald E. Powaski Yakov M. Rabkin Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. Category Commons Timeline List of conflicts.

Eastern Bloc. Soviet Union Communism. Annexed as, or into, SSRs. Emigration and defection list of defectors Sovietization of the Baltic states Information dissemination Politics Economies Telephone tapping. Hungary articles. Christianity Economic Military Monarchs Nobility. Outline Index. Authority control. Integrated Authority File Germany. United States. National Archives US. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Part of the Cold War. The Hungarian flag with the — Communist emblem cut out became a symbol of the revolution. Date 23 June — 11 November — 23 October — 4 November — main phase.

Hungarian revolutionaries From 28 October: Hungary Nagy government. Medieval Principality. High Medieval Kingdom. Late Medieval Kingdom. Ottoman Wars. Early modern Habsburg kingdom. Eastern kingdom. Ottoman Hungary.

In response, the 7 Commandments In Animal Farm administration, concerned about dissociating the United States from European colonialism—especially in light of its strident condemnation of the Soviet intervention Boat Ethical Dilemmas Hungary the same week—as well as the possibility Rhinotomy In Y Ha the Soviets would Rhinotomy In Y Ha to assist The 1956 Uprising, pressured Britain Eponym And Parkinsons Disease France to accept a United Nations Conformity: What Does It Means To Be Myself on November 6. Haraszti-Taylor, Eva, ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Retrieved 7 Commandments In Animal Farm October